Our specialty is Scoliosis Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care. 12 million people worldwide are affected by spine pain, and other spinal injuries or conditions. Many people have some degree of curvature of the spine, yet experience little or no discomfort.

SWSI Scoliosis Quiz

3 percent of individuals with progressive curvature may eventually experience severe problems that can include scoliosis and back pain, spinal problems, and nerve compression causing numbness, weakness, and leg pain.

At the Southwest Scoliosis Institute, We focus on Scoliosis Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care for our Patients

Our fellowship-trained, board-certified orthopedic spine surgeons, Richard Hostin, MD, Kathryn Wiesman, MD, and Shyam Kishan, MD, specialize in all types of scoliosis. With our experience in research, diagnosis, treatment, and surgery for children, adolescents, and adults, the Southwest Scoliosis Institute is recognized to be at the top of the scoliosis specialty field.  Our sought after, experienced doctors and surgical team are leaders in clinical outcomes for the comprehensive spine conditions we treat. The Institute is known for helping thousands of patients get back to living the life they want to live without the debilitating symptoms and pain that often present with this condition. Our team cares for all types of Scoliosis conditions, from mild cases to the most severe ones.Scoliosis Pre surgery X-ray

At the Scoliosis Institute, our team of spine specialists will devise the optimal treatment plan for you or your child based on the severity of the spinal curve, your pain, where the curve occurs in the spine, and the age and stage of progression. Our mission is to minimize your pain and any deformity associated with the curve of the spine. There is a large population of patients that live with so much pain and daily struggles associated with spine deformities that really need our help. Because of our extensive research and experience, we can often help in very severe cases of this condition, live pain-free enjoyable lives. Our unique perspective is learned from actively participating in spine specific research and treating very complex spine conditions, this combination helps us provide better surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction post-surgical intervention or scoliosis surgery.

In many cities, orthopedic surgeons heal broken bones, but do not specialize in the care of adults and children with scoliosis; therefore, many patients must travel to other cities to obtain the benefit from Scoliosis Specialists to improve their lives. One of the primary reasons for patients to come to us from countries all over the world is the fact that only a handful of surgeons have extensive experience and are trained to specialize in these difficult life-changing procedures. While many patients with spinal curves believe there is no treatment option available or that as an adult, their spinal problem cannot be treated, Southwest Scoliosis Institute offers medical solutions based on proven techniques and procedures.

What causes Scoliosis?

The causes of scoliosis are not entirely understood. In fact, according to the Scoliosis Research Society, SRS, a specific cause is not found in 8 out of 10 cases. While many cases of spine curvature are thought to be genetic, there is no single cause that is widely agreed upon. This is why our current research is so important. In our research groups, we are studying to enhance current conservative treatments by increasing their effectiveness, better use of implants, post-surgery patient outcomes, and more. All of this research helps our team develop new treatments and improve others.

Research also motivates us to learn to predict outcomes of different types of non-surgical treatments, how different surgery techniques affect patients after surgery, devise new surgical treatments, and helps us to stretch our thought processes as a group as well. “To date, we have a number of observations and findings, but there’s no unified theory of what causes Scoliosis curves,” says Dr. Hostin. “Unfortunately, we don’t have the tools available yet to determine why one person with a curve will progress to need a complex surgical procedure, while another with a curve that’s seemingly the same reaches adulthood and doesn’t need surgery.”

Several observations do exist:

  • Heredity – This curved spine condition tends to run in families and presents with different effects in each generation, perhaps even skipping generations.
  • Degeneration Adult scoliosis can be caused by disc degeneration, osteoporosis or osteomalacia, a softening of the bones.
  • Spinal cord injury – A spine deformity can appear following a spinal cord injury or trauma. Additionally, spinal curvature patients who had polio in the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s may experience a spine curvature as a result of paralysis.
  • Congenital – A spine curvature can result from the improper formation of vertebrae during fetal development.
  • Neuromuscular – Abnormal nerve or muscle function can result in a large “C” shape in the spine.
Some of the conditions below may develop Scoliosis:
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Spina Bifida
  • Muscular Dystrophy

Is there a scoliosis gene? Research is being conducted to identify specific genes associated with curvatures of the spine in the hope that we will be better able to predict which curves are at the highest risk for progression. “Scoliosis is thought to be genetic, and a result of an expression of multiple genes; however, it has variable penetrance, meaning that in each generation there is variability in how strongly the genes are expressed, which determines how severe the curve is,” explains Dr. Kishan. “This condition tends to run in families, but it tends to have variable effects in each generation. That is, a mother may have a mild curve who has a daughter with a severe curve, or a mother with a severe curve may have grandchildren who then have a spine curvature, but the intervening generation didn’t exhibit any significant problems.”

Our expert team of spine specialists has received many academic honors & awards and has published in several peer-reviewed journals as well as presented their work at national and international meetings. They are also members of several prestigious research societies, including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons,  Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, Scoliosis Research Society, American Orthopaedic Association, and the Growing Spine Study Group.


What are some common Types of Scoliosis?

What are the Symptoms of Scoliosis?

A curved spine can be a hidden disorder with no obvious signs of curvature, or it can cause great discomfort, pain, and disability. Some patients have undetected curvature of the spine for years until the curve starts to increase in size, causing pain and difficulty. “We think of scoliosis as being a childhood disease and are generally taught that it is such. In fact, most commonly, curvatures of the spine are diagnosed in the juvenile and adolescent stages of 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years of age,” observes Dr. Hostin. “However, adult-onset or degenerative scoliosis, which we think develops as a result of disc degeneration, is probably an entirely separate entity from what we commonly think of as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.” Some symptoms include:

  • A  shoulder blade that appears to be higher than the other
  • A pelvis that appears to be tilted
  • Any imbalance in the rib cage or other deformities along the back

More Advanced Scoliosis Cases:

  • Back pain
  • Neck pain
  • Rib pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Headaches
  • Limited movement

Scoliosis Treatment

When the curvature of the spine is identified and diagnosed, a determination can be made as to what type of treatment is proper.  The following are important indicators for determining the treatment

  • Spinal maturity – is the patient’s spine still growing, has it stopped growing, and is the curve changing?
  • Degree and extent of curvature – how severe is the curve and how does it affect the patient’s lifestyle?
  • Location of the curve – according to some experts, thoracic curves are more likely to progress than curves in other regions of the spine.
  • Possibility of curve progression – patients who have large curves prior to their adolescent growth spurts are more likely to experience curve progression.

After these variables are assessed, the following treatment options may be recommended:


In many children, the spinal curve is usually mild enough to not require treatment. However, we may wish to monitor the child every four to six months throughout adolescence. In adults with a spine curvature, X-rays are scheduled based on the patient’s evaluation to track any progression or change.  


Braces are only effective in patients who have not reached skeletal maturity. If the child is still growing and his or her curve is between 25 degrees and 40 degrees, a brace may be recommended to prevent the curve from progressing. There are many different types of braces, your physician will help you decide which one is best for you and your condition.


In adults and children, the two primary goals of surgery are to stop the curve from progressing and diminish spinal deformity and stop the pain. We recommend surgery only when necessary and all conservative treatments have been exhausted. One of the most common types of surgery for scoliosis is a spinal fusion. Some adults who were treated as children may need revision surgery, in particular, if they were treated 20 to 30 years ago before major advances in spinal surgery procedures were implemented. Oftentimes the adult patient will have new symptoms, mainly severe back pain, trouble walking, or broken hardware. In general, surgery in adults may be recommended when there is clear evidence that the surgery will improve the quality of life.  

We can help

From the first time you walk into our offices at the Southwest Scoliosis Institute, you will feel at ease. You will talk directly to one of our expert orthopedic physicians, who will take the time to listen and understand the complexities of your situation and perform a detailed evaluation. The doctor will review your X-rays and other radiological exams with you, in detail, and determine a specific diagnosis. After you are well informed, you and your doctor will formulate the right treatment plan. If your scoliosis doctor feels surgery is not the right decision in your case, he’ll tell you that, too, and recommend a nonsurgical remedy as to the first course of treatment.

Deborah couldn’t remember a single day in her life without pain. That all changed when she had scoliosis surgery at Southwest Scoliosis Institute. Deborah had an 82-degree curve at the top of her spine and an 89-degree curve on the bottom. She was in terrible pain and suffering from other complications of scoliosis, including a chest deformity that made it difficult to breathe. She was also having a hard time walking and required a cane. “I was in so much pain, I felt like a zombie most of the time,” said Deborah. “I couldn’t work anymore. I couldn’t shop or cook.”

SWSI Providers, Kishan, Hostin, & Wiesman

“We measure our success by our patients’ expectations of success,” says Dr. Wiesman. “We commonly receive letters and pictures from our patients telling us how we have been a significant part of their recovery and how much the quality of their lives has improved.”

If you are an adult living with scoliosis or have a child with scoliosis and need a physician who specializes in orthopedic surgery,
call the Southwest Scoliosis Institute at 214-556-0555 to make an appointment today.